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may breach European law

Allowing children under 15 to do paper rounds before school is "in principle contrary" to human rights law, says a European watchdog.

The European Committee on Social Rights (ECSR) says the hours UK children can work are "excessive".

Some local by-laws allow UK children as young as 13 to do "light work" like delivering newspapers or shop work.

But work considered light "ceases to be so if it is performed for an excessive duration", says the report.

UK law allows children to work up to 12 hours a week during term time, with a maximum of two hours on school days and Sundays.

It stipulates children should not work more than an hour before school and should not start work before 7am or finish after 7pm - but local by-laws can sometimes be less restrictive, the report found.

The Committee monitors how individual states apply the legally binding European Social Charter.

It is part of the Council of Europe which was set up by statesmen including Sir Winston Churchill to promote human rights in Europe and is completely separate from the European Union.

The Charter requires that during the school term, the time children may work must be limited "so as not to interfere with their attendance, receptiveness and homework", the report points out.

For example "allowing children aged 15 years, still subject to compulsory education, to deliver newspapers from 6am for up to two hours per day, five days per week before school is not in conformity with the charter", it adds.

Holiday work

The report also expresses concern about work by children during the school holidays.

Excessive working hours for children can risk "their health, moral welfare or education", it suggests.

In the UK, 15- to 16-year-olds can work a maximum of 35 hours a week in the school holidays, with a maximum of eight hours on weekdays and Saturdays and two hours on Sundays.

For 13- to 14-year olds, school holiday working times are restricted to 25 hours a week, with a maximum of five hours on weekdays and Saturdays and two hours on Sundays.

The Charter requires children in full-time education to have a two-week break from any work during the school holidays in a calendar year.

In the report, the committee asks the UK for confirmation that children have two consecutive weeks free from work during the summer holiday in the United Kingdom.

It asks the UK for more detailed information on how it monitors possible illegal employment of children and what sanctions are imposed against employers who do not comply with restrictions under the law.

The Department for Education did not directly address the ECSR's suggestion that the hours UK children are allowed to work are "excessive" but said there were "clear rules to protect school age children".

"They limit time that teenagers can spend working - especially within the school term," said a spokesman.

tumbdrive, data. Photo: Josh Valcarcel/WIRED

CALIFORNIA CONTINUED ITS long-standing tradition for forward-thinking privacy laws today when Governor Jerry Brown signed a sweeping law protecting digital privacy rights.

The landmark Electronic Communications Privacy Act bars any state law enforcement agency or other investigative entity from compelling a business to turn over any metadata or digital communications—including emails, texts, documents stored in the cloud—without a warrant. It also requires a warrant to track the location of electronic devices like mobile phones, or to search them.

The legislation, which easily passed the Legislature last month, is the most comprehensive in the country, says the ACLU.

“This is a landmark win for digital privacy and all Californians,” Nicole Ozer, technology and civil liberties policy director at the ACLU of California, said in a statment. “We hope this is a model for the rest of the nation in protecting our digital privacy rights.”

Five other states have warrant protection for content, and nine others have warrant protection for GPS location tracking. But California is the first to enact a comprehensive law protecting location data, content, metadata and device searches, Ozer told WIRED.

“This is really a comprehensive update for the modern digital age,” she said.

State senators Mark Leno (D-San Francisco) and Joel Anderson (R-Alpine) wrote the legislation earlier this year to give digital data the same kinds of protection that non-digital communications have.

“For what logical reason should a handwritten letter stored in a desk drawer enjoy more protection from warrantless government surveillance than an email sent to a colleague or a text message to a loved one?” Leno said earlier this year. “This is nonsensical and violates the right to liberty and privacy that every Californian expects under the constitution.”

The bill enjoyed widespread support among civil libertarians like the American Civil Liberties Union and the Electronic Frontier Foundation as well as tech companies like Apple, Google, Facebook, Dropbox, LinkedIn, and Twitter, which have headquarters in California. It also had huge bipartisan support among state lawmakers.

“For too long, California’s digital privacy laws have been stuck in the Dark Ages, leaving our personal emails, text messages, photos and smartphones increasingly vulnerable to warrantless searches,” Leno said in a statement today. “That ends today with the Governor’s signature of CalECPA, a carefully crafted law that protects personal information of all Californians. The bill also ensures that law enforcement officials have the tools they need to continue to fight crime in the digital age.”

The law applies only to California law enforcement entities; law enforcement agencies in other states would be compelled by the laws in their jurisdictions, which is why Ozer and others say it’s important to get similar comprehensive laws passed elsewhere.

The law places California not only at the forefront of protecting digital privacy among states, it outpaces even the federal government, where such efforts have stalled.

Civil libertarians and others have long lobbied federal lawmakers to update the Electronic Communications Privacy Act to offer such protection nationwide. An amendment to that law has been wending through Capitol Hill, where it has 300 co-sponsors. But the proposal is less comprehensive than the law Brown signed, and would merely focus on digital content. Currently, the federal ECPA requires a warrant for stored content that is newer than 180 days; the amendment would extend the warrant requirement to all digital content regardless of age.

California has long led the way in privacy protection. Voters amended the state constitution in the 1970s to provide explicit privacy rights far more robust than those guaranteed by the Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution. But while the state amendment ensured a right to privacy for all Californians, lawmakers couldn’t envision the technological advances that would come in the decades to follow. The law that Brown signed today closes surveillance loopholes left by that amendment and “codifies what was intended by that privacy right,” Ozer says.

“We certainly hope that this bill is a clarion call [for the federal amendment],” she told WIRED. “This is not only a comprehensive update for all Californians, but hopefully is a model for making sure that all Americans have this kind of digital privacy protection.”

Image005-7-300x169When you get into an accident with a large commercial truck or semi-truck, there’s a high chance that you’ll get injured or worse, lose your life. Very few people have ever escaped accidents involving trucks unscathed.

Kaleb Whitby is one lucky guy who escaped from one of the most horrific accidents in January 2015. His car was pinned between the trailers of two semi-trucks in a 26-car pileup on interstate 84 in Oregon. The crash only left two things intact; the marred shell surrounding Whitby’s seat and Whitby. He survived with a bruise on his left eyebrow and a few scratches on his right hand.

You might not have been as lucky as Whitby and you might be looking to file a truck accident injury lawsuit in Plymouth. The good news is you might have a case and the bad news is truck accident injury lawsuits are complicated and require different legal considerations than a typical car accident.

This means that you need to hire a Plymouth truck accident attorney to help you with your case. Here’s what they will help you with:

They’ll Use the Law to Help You

The trucking industry has a number of laws and regulations that only apply to it. For instance, there are laws that regulate truck maintenance, maximum truck weight, driver test requirements and commercial driver’s licenses. The trucking company or the truck driver’s liability in the accident will be affected by these laws.

Identifying Potential Defendants

Being involved in a commercial trucking accident means more than one person can be held legally liable for your injuries. Insurance companies, the driver’s employer, the trucking company and even the driver can be held accountable for the accident. While you might overlook some of the responsible parties, your accident truck attorney will be able to identify the parties responsible for your accident.